Observando a Europa observar sus fronteras. Autorreflexión cultural y vigilancia en filmes sobre migración [Edición bilingüe: español – inglés]

Autorreflexión cultural en películas sobre la migración

Resumen

El punto de partida de esta contribución es la problematización de la actual “crisis migratoria” europea en cuanto un discurso progresivamente más autorreferente y exclusivista hacia Europa, que transforma emergencias humanitarias en asuntos de “seguridad nacional”, “identidad” y hegemonía económica. Para lograr penetrar tan autorreferente cerco, han surgido prácticas culturales y contranarrativas que llevan a Europa a recordar los inmigrantes reales detrás de la “crisis”, los individuos que componen la “ola de refugiados”, los cadáveres tras las estadísticas. Para captar un conjunto específico de tales prácticas y narrativas que discuten de manera explícita la forma en que la crisis habitualmente es “mantenida a raya”, y las cuales balancean el contraste mismo que existe entre dentro y fuera, sugerimos el término autorreflexión cultural: al reflexionar acerca de los marcos culturales en los que ellas mismas han surgido, apuntan a cuestionar y perforar estos marcos desde dentro, haciendo posibles nuevas perspectivas en el exterior. Como caso ejemplar, discutiremos la representación de las fronteras externas de la Unión Europea en un conjunto de documentales y ensayos cinematográficos europeos contemporáneos de enfoque particular en las formas en que las prácticas relativas a la vigilancia fronteriza y su uso en noticiarios son presentadas y cuestionadas. La discusión relativa a estos “Filmes Fronterizos” nos proporciona un modelo con portabilidad y un prototipo para poder llegar a mostrar a la autorreflexión como un área crucial para las futuras investigaciones en Humanidades, a raíz de la crisis migratoria europea.

Citas

ADELMANN, Ralf (2003): Visuelle Kulturen der Kontrollgesellschaft. Zur Popularisierung digitaler und videografischer Visualisierungen im Fernsehen. Bochum, Ruhr-Universität.

ADEY, Peter (2012): "Borders, identification and surveillance. New regimes of border control", in BALL, Kirstie, HAGGERTY, Kevin and LYON, David (eds.): Routledge handbook of Surveillance Studies. Florence, Taylor and Francis, pp. 193-200.

BAUMAN, Zygmunt (1999): Culture as praxis. London, Sage.

BAUMAN, Zygmunt (2006): Liquid fear. Cambridge, Polity Press.

BAUMAN, Zygmunt (2007): Consuming life. Cambridge, Polity Press.

BAUMAN, Zygmunt (2011): Culture in a liquid modern world. Cambridge, Polity Press.

BAYRAKTAR, Nilgun (2016): Mobility and migration in film and moving-image art: Cinema beyond Europe. New York: Routledge.

BERRY, Mike, GARCIA-BLANCO, Inaki and MOORE, Kerry (2015): Press coverage of the refugee and migrant crisis in the EU: A content analysis of five European countries. Report prepared for the United Nations High Commission for Refugees. http://www.unhcr.org/56bb369c9.pdf. Access date: 15 September 2017

BIGO, Didier (2007): "Detention of foreigners, states of exception, and the social practices of control of the Banopticon", in: RAJARAM, Prem Kunar and GRUNDY-WARR, Carl: Borderscapes: Hidden geographies and politics at territory's edge. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3-34.

COLEMAN, Roy, and MCCAHILL, Michael (2011): Surveillance & crime. London, Sage.

CUNHA, Alice, SILVA, Marta and FREDERICO, Rui (2015): The Borders of Schengen. Brussels, P.I.E. Peter Lang.

DE BLOOIS, Joost, CELIKATES, Robin and JANSEN, Yolande (eds.) (2015): The irregularization of migration in contemporary Europe: detention, deportation, drowning. London, Rowman & Littlefield International.

EAGLETON, Terry (2000): The idea of culture. Malden, Blackwell Publishing.

FORENSIC ARCHITECTURE (2017): Project. http://www.forensic-architecture.org/project/ Access date: 15 September 2017
FOTOPOULOS, Stergios and KAIMAKLIOTI, Margarita (2016): “Media discourse on the refugee crisis: On what have the Greek, German and British press focused?” European View 15:2, pp. 265–279.

FOUCAULT, Michel (1995): Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison. New York, Vintage.

GOODMAN, Simon, SIRRIYEH, Ala & MCMAHON, Simon (2017): “The evolving (re)categorisations of refugees throughout the 'refugee/migrant crisis'“. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 27, pp. 105–114.

HAGGERTY, Kevin and ERICSON, Richard (2000): "The surveillant assemblage". The British Journal of Sociology 51, pp. 605–622.

HAGGERTY, Kevin (2006): "Tear down the walls: On demolishing the Panopticon", in LYON, David (ed.): Theorizing surveillance: The Panopticon and beyond. Cullompton, Willan, pp. 23-45.

KÖHN, Steffen (2016): Mediating mobility: Visual anthropology in the age of migration. New York: Columbia University Press.

KOSHO, Joana (2016): "Media influence on public opinion attitudes toward the migration crisis". International Journal of Scientific and Technology Research 5:5, pp. 86-91.

KRASTEV, Ivan (2017): After Europe. Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.

LIPPERT, Florian (2008): "Autopoiesis. Selbstbilder, Von-selbst-Bilder und Bilder vom Selbst". Kritische Berichte 4, pp. 16-21.

LIPPERT, Florian (2009): "Narrowing circles. Questions on Autopoiesis and literary interpretation". Cybernetics and Human Knowing 16:1-2, pp. 125-141.

LIPPERT, Florian (2010): "AutoPoeten. Versuch zur Maschinenkunst aus postkybernetischer Perspektive", in SCHULZ, Martin and WYSS, Beat (eds.): Techniken des Bildes. Munich, Fink, pp. 183-198.

LIPPERT, Florian (2013): Selbstreferenz in Literatur und Wissenschaft: Kronauer, Grünbein, Maturana, Luhmann. Munich, Fink.

LIPPERT, Florian (2016): "Auto(r)fiktionen. Metaisierung als Wechsel narrativer und sozialer Frames am Beispiel von Hoppes Hoppe", in FRANK, Svenja and ILGNER, Julia (eds.): Ehrliche Erfindungen. Felicitas Hoppe als Erzählerin zwischen Tradition und Transmoderne. Bielefeld, Transcript, pp. 343-358.

LUHMANN, Niklas (1984): Soziale Systeme. Frankfurt, Suhrkamp.
LYON, David (2006): "9⁄11, Synopticon and scopophilia: Watching and being watched", in
HAGGERTY, Kevin and ERICSON, Richard (eds.): The new politics of surveillance and visibility. Toronto, University of Toronto Press, pp. 35-54.

LYON, David (2010): “Liquid surveillance: The contribution of Zygmunt Bauman to Surveillance Studies”, International Political Sociology 4:4, pp. 325-338.

LYON, David and BAUMAN, Zygmunt (2013): Liquid Surveillance. A conversation. Cambridge, Polity.

MANN, Martin (2015): Das Erscheinen des Mediums: Autoreflexivität zwischen Phänomen und Funktionen. Würzburg, Königshausen und Neumann.

MANN, Steve, NOLAN, Jason and WELLMAN, Barry (2003): "Sousveillance: Inventing and using wearable computing devices for data collection in surveillance environments." Surveillance and Society 1:3, pp. 331-355.

MATHIESEN, Thomas (1997): “The viewer society: Michel Foucault's Panopticon revisited.” Theoretical Criminology 1:2, pp. 215-34.

MATHIESEN, Thomas (2004): Silently silenced: Essays on the creation of acquiesence in modern society. Winchester, Waterside Press.

MCGRATH, John E. (2004): Loving Big Brother: Performance, privacy and surveillance space. London, Routledge.

MENASSE, Robert (2012): Der europäische Landbote. Vienna, Zsolnay.

PEEREN, Esther (2015): "Refocalizing irregular migration: New perspectives on the global mobility regime in contemporary visual culture", in DE BLOOIS, Joost, CELIKATES, Robin and JANSEN, Yolande: The irregularization of migration in contemporary Europe: detention, deportation, drowning. London, Rowman & Littlefield International, pp. 173-190.

PEZZANI, Lorenzo (2015): Liquid Traces. Spatial practices, aesthetics and humanitarian dilemmas at the maritime borders of the EU. London, Goldsmiths.

RAJARAM, Prem Kunar and GRUNDY-WARR, Carl (2007): Borderscapes: Hidden geographies and politics at territory's edge. Minneapolis, University of Minnesota Press, pp. 3-34.

RENSMANN, Lars (2017): "The Noisy Counter-Revolution: Understanding the Cultural Conditions and Dynamics of Populist Politics in Europe in The Digital Age", in RENSMANN, Lars, DE LANGE, Sarah L. and COUPERUS, Stefan: Populism and the Remaking of (Il)Liberal Democracy in Europe. Politics and Governance 5:4 (in press).

RUZ, Camila (2015): The battle over the words used to describe migrants. http://www.bbc.com/news/magazine-34061097 Access date: 15 September 2017

SAMBARAJU, Rahul & MCVITTIE, Chris (2017): "The European Union and the refugee 'crisis': Inclusion, challenges, and responses." Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology 27, pp. 99-104.

SASSEN, Saskia (2005): “Regulating immigration in a global age: A new policy landscape.” Parallax 34, pp. 35-45.

SAUNDERS, Dave (2007): Direct Cinema: Observational documentary and the politics of the Sixties. London, Wallflower Press.

SCOTT, James Wesley (2012): "European politics of borders, border symbolism and cross-border cooperation", in WILSON, Thomas M. and DONNAN, Hastings (eds): A companion to border studies. Hoboken, Wiley, pp. 83-99.

STEADMAN, Philip (2012): “Samuel Bentham's Panopticon.” Journal of Bentham Studies 14:1, pp. 1-30.

UNHCR (1996): Convention and protocol relating to the status of refugees. http://unhcr.org.ua/files/Convention-EN.pdf Access date: 15 September 2017

UNHCR (2017): Statistical yearbooks. Figures at a glance 2017. http://www.unhcr.org/figures-at-a-glance.html Access date: 15 September 2017

VAN HOUTUM, Henk (2005): “The geopolitics of borders and boundaries”, Geopolitics 10:4, pp. 672–79.

VARZI, Achille (2015): "Boundary", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2015/entries/boundary Access date: 15 September 2017

VERSTRAETE, Ginette (2009): Tracking Europe: Mobility, diaspora, and the politics of location. Durham, NC, Duke University Press.

VIRILIO, Paulo (2012): The administration of fear. Los Angeles, Semiotexte.

WHITE, Aidan (ed.) (2015): Moving stories. International review on how media cover migration. London, Ethical Journalism Network.

ZEITEL-BANK, Natascha (2017): "Dimensions of polity, politics and policy in the Austrian media system: Media coverage of the ‘Refugee/Asylum Seeker Crisis", International Journal of Media & Cultural Politics 13:1, pp. 91–109.



Filmes, Series de Televisión y Exhibiciones citados – Films, TV Series and Exhibitions cited

AI, Weiwei (2017): Human Flow.

BLUEMEL, James (2016): Exodus – Our journey to Europe.

GEYRHALTER, Nikolaus (2011): Abendland.

HELLER, Charles and PEZZANI, Lorenzo (2014): Liquid Traces – The left-to-die boat case.

MATZIARAKI, Daphne (2016): 4.1 Miles.

MCELVANEY, Kevin (2016): Refugee Cameras. http://kevin-mcelvaney.com/refugeecameras/ Access date: 15 September 2017

MOSSE, Richard (2016): Incoming. Exhibition at Barbican Art Gallery, London. Documented on https://www.barbican.org.uk/richard-mosse-incoming Access date: 15 September 2017

ROSI, Gianfranco (2016): Fuocoammare.

SIEBERT, Moritz, WAGNER, Estephan, and SIDIBÉ, Abou Bakar (2016): Les Sauteurs - Those who jump.

WADDINGTON, Laura (2004): Border.
Publicado
2018-08-15
##submission.howToCite##
LIPPERT, Florian. Observando a Europa observar sus fronteras. Autorreflexión cultural y vigilancia en filmes sobre migración [Edición bilingüe: español – inglés]. Perspectivas de la Comunicación - ISSN 0718-4867, [S.l.], v. 11, n. 1, p. 95-150, ago. 2018. ISSN 0718-4867. Disponible en: <http://revistas.ufro.cl/index.php/perspectivas/article/view/861>. Fecha de acceso: 19 nov. 2018
Sección
Artículos - Comunicación y literatura desde una perspectiva transatlántica.