Comunicación política, elecciones y democracia: las campañas de Donald Trump y Jair Bolsonaro

Palabras clave: Internet y Democracia, comunicación política comparada, campañas electorales online, Donald Trump, Jair Bolsonaro

Resumen

Este artículo tiene como objetivo reflexionar acerca de los posibles impactos de prácticas de comunicación política digital en el ambiente electoral sobre la democracia brasileña y las democracias en general, a partir de las elecciones presidenciales en Estados Unidos (2016) y Brasil (2018). Nuestro propósito es desarrollar una discusión en el marco de la "americanización", "modernización", "posmodernización" e "hipermediatización" de las campañas, así como a través de la idea de "eclipse del público" de John Dewey (1927). En perspectiva comparada, realizaremos una breve contextualización de las dos elecciones, con un enfoque especial en las plataformas de Donald Trump, en los Estados Unidos y de Jair Bolsonaro, en Brasil. Las mismas serán estudiadas con base en una metodología de estudio de caso en perspectiva histórica, mediante la cual tres investigadores analizaron más de 300 documentos, incluyendo artículos, reportajes, informes, entrevistas, etc. El análisis del contenido fue realizado a partir de la idea de "propaganda computacional", como una práctica comunicacional que utiliza datos, algoritmos y automatización para administrar y diseminar información (y desinformación) en los medios digitales. A partir de las contextualizaciones y discusiones propuestas, sugerimos: 1) una noción más amplia de "hipermediatización" como paradigma de entendimiento de los procesos de comunicación política en los contextos electorales, lo que llamamos de "hipermediatización extendida"; y 2) la idea de "eclipse del público", de John Dewey, para evaluar los problemas potenciales generados en la esfera pública por la fragmentación del público en varios minipúblicos. Con lo expuesto anteriormente, esperamos contribuir para los debates sobre cómo las tecnologías digitales de la comunicación pueden afectar, no solamente a las campañas, sino también a la política y a la democracia.

Citas

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Publicado
2019-12-15
Sección
Artículos - Comunicación política